Il Rapporto dell’ISAAA http://www.isaaa.org/resources/publications/briefs/46/topfacts/default.asp attesta ancora un aumento delle superfici coltivate nel mondo del 3%. La corsa non sembra arrestarsi benché oramai le superfici coltivate stanno raggiungendo il limite massimo di coltivazioni possibili (ad esempio il cotone OGM indiano e’ al 95%, tanto per ridicolizzare i finti esperti indiani). Elenco qui sotto per punti quelli che mi sembrano i dati più importanti o promettenti:
1. I Paesi che nel 2013 hanno fatto prove di OGM in pieno campo Cameron, Egitto, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria e Uganda
Bangladesh, Indonesia e Panama nel 2014 dovrebbero commercializzare OGM.
2. Biotech crops contribution to Food Security, Sustainability and Climate Change
From 1996 to 2012, biotech crops contributed to Food Security, Sustainability and Climate Change by: increasing crop production valued at US$116.9 billion; providing a better environment, by saving 497 million kg a.i. of pesticides; in 2012 alone reducing CO2 emissions by 26.7 billion kg, equivalent to taking 11.8 million cars off the road for one year; conserving biodiversity in the period 1996-2012 by saving 123 million hectares of land; and helped alleviate poverty by helping >16.5 million small farmers, and their families totaling >65 million people, who are some of the poorest people in the world. Biotech crops can contribute to a “sustainable intensification” strategy favored by many science academies worldwide, which allows productivity/production to be increased only on the current 1.5 billion hectares of global crop land, thereby saving forests and biodiversity. Biotech crops are essential but are not a panacea and adherence to good farming practices, such as rotations and resistance management, are a must for biotech crops as they are for conventional crops.
3. Nitrogen Use Efficiency
A chapter in the full Brief provides an initial global overview of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use and efficiency. About 100 million tons of N fertilizer is used on crops at an annual cost of US$50 billion. Up to half of the N applied is not taken up by the crops and causes pollution, particularly in waterways. Conventional and biotech approaches are being explored for increasing N use efficiency. Some indications that in the midterm (5 to 10 years) new technology could save up to half of N currently applied to crops with no yield penalty.
4. Status of approved events for biotech crops
As of 30 November 2013, a total of 36 countries (35 + EU-27) have granted regulatory approvals for biotech crops for food and/or feed use and for environmental release or planting since 1994. In these 36 countries, a total of 2,833 regulatory approvals involving 27 GM crops and 336 GM events have been issued by competent authorities, of which 1,321 are for food use (direct use or processing), 918 for feed use (direct use or processing) and 599 for environmental release or planting. Japan has the most number of events approved (198), followed by the U.S.A. (165 not including stacked events), Canada (146), Mexico (131), South Korea (103), Australia (93), New Zealand (83), European Union (71 including approvals that have expired or under renewal process), Philippines (68), Taiwan (65), Colombia (59), China (55) and South Africa (52). Maize has the most number of approved events (130 events in 27 countries), followed by cotton (49 events in 22 countries), potato (31 events in 10 countries), canola (30 events in 12 countries) and soybean (27 events in 26 countries). The event that has received the most number of approvals is the herbicide tolerant soybean event GTS-40-3-2 (51 approvals in 24 countries + EU-27), followed by the insect resistant maize event MON810 (49 approvals in 23 countries + EU-27) and herbicide tolerant maize event NK603 (49 approvals in 22 countries + EU-27), insect resistant maize event Bt11 (45 approvals in 21 countries + EU-27), insect resistant maize event TC1507 (45 approvals in 20 countries + EU-27), herbicide tolerant maize event GA21 (41 approvals in 19 countries + EU-27), herbicide tolerant soybean event A2704-12 (37 approvals in 19 countries + EU-27), insect resistant maize event MON89034 (36 approvals in 19 countries + EU-27), insect resistant cotton event MON531 (36 approvals in 17 countries + EU-27), herbicide tolerant and insect resistant maize event MON88017 (35 approvals in 19 countries + EU-27), and insect resistant cotton event MON1445 (34 approvals in 15 countries + EU-27).
5. The US continued to be the lead country with 70.1 million hectares, with an average ~90% adoption across all crops. Importantly, the first biotech drought tolerant maize was planted by 2,000 US farmers on 50,000 hectares.